Do I Need A Chloramine Filter?


Water Treatment PlantEvery few years, something new finds its way into our drinking water, causing confusion at best and justifiable panic at worst.

Fortunately, most of what we hear about is nowhere near the levels that we saw recently in West Virginia (ie a severe MCHM contamination incident from earlier this year.)  Even the recent finding of E. Coli in New York City, while horrifying and inexcusable, represents an issue that can be treated fairly easily once discovered.

In speaking to our customers, an impurity that is coming up more frequently is chloramine.  While certainly not a new disinfectant, the use of chloramine as a disinfectant of choice over chlorine is becoming more common in larger cities, including Los Angeles.  This is due in large part to chloramine’s stability, making it more effective at disinfection when water must travel longer distances.

Without a doubt, chloramine is an interesting disinfectant.  Formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water, is both a more stable and weaker disinfectant than chlorine.  While weaker, it is up to ten times harder to reduce from water, especially with a basic carbon water filter.  Chloramine will also not effectively boil out of water or dissipate, as can be counted on with chlorine.

As is common, because the addition of chloramine in water is not always fully understood or fully communicated, it’s a cause for concern that we see driving some of our purchases.  And while we are happy to offer you a chloramine filter that will help to meet your needs, our goal is not to sell you something that you simply do not need – especially as a chloramine filter will typically cost you more out of pocket.

Safe Treated Drinking Water From TapSo before investing in a more expensive water filter than you are accustomed to, review the ten questions below to see if upgrading to reduce chloramine is something you truly need.  You may also call our customer service team at 1-800-277-3458 if you have any additional questions:

1. Why are water companies putting chloramine in water?
In referencing the story above, that shares more about the recent switch to chloramine in Los Angeles, most municipalities and water companies see chloramine as a safer alternative to chlorine as it remains more effective over long distances and ensures less risk of toxic Disinfection By-Products (DBPs.)  As such, using chloramine as a water disinfectant has been deemed a safer alternative whether your water will be consumed by humans or animals, with some exceptions discussed below.

Illinois American Water shares that despite this being a new disinfectant in many areas, cities throughout the US and Canada have used chloramine for decades.  Denver, Colorado, in fact, has used it since 1917.  Everpure, a brand we are proud to carry at our online store here, shares that 25% of the largest public water supplies in the US are using this disinfectant.

2. Is MY water company putting chloramine in MY water?
The answer to this depends upon whether your municipality or water company reached out to you to share that they’d be making the switch to chloramine as a disinfectant.  If not, it’s possible that they’ve used it for years.  If this is the case, this information will be available either on your local water company’s website or by calling them directly.

3. Were you contacted by your water company regarding overuse of chloramine?
As with any other incident impacting your water, your municipality or water company is required to inform you if you are at a health risk from your drinking water, whether due to a contaminant that can be boiled out or an impurity that risks impacting taste or odor.  If your municipality has not issued any such alert, you are likely not at a high risk of chloramine contamination in your home, and would likely not need to invest in a chloramine filter.

4. If you have been contacted by your water company regarding overuse of chloramine, is this the first time or just the latest time?
On the other hand, if your water company has contacted you several times regarding the overuse of chloramine, it may be time to invest in a water filter or filtration system that puts your mind a bit more at ease.  Whether this means you’ve been warned just one time or several times is a matter of personal opinion.

Safe Shower Water5. Have you noticed a much heavier chlorine taste and odor in your water?
As much as we always like to give local municipalities and water companies the benefit of the doubt, there have been some troubling instances where drinking water alerts were sent out late (the recent E. Coli contamination incident in Portland comes to immediate mind.)

If your drinking water smells and tastes like a swimming pool, it is definitely worth placing a quick call to your water company if you haven’t received any alert.

6. What health effects does overuse of chloramine cause?
Fundamentally, the levels at which chloramine is used to treat municipal water is safe, as is any other type of similar disinfectant.  It’s certainly safer than virtually anything you’ll find in untreated water, including any number of harmful bacteria.

Illinois American Water shares:
“Everyone can drink water that’s chloraminated because the digestive process neutralizes the chloramines before they reach the bloodstream.  It’s only when water interacts directly with the bloodstream that chloramines must be removed.

Note that it’s this direct contact with bloodstream that makes chloraminated water dangerous for fish or dialysis patients, rather than those just drinking chloraminated water.  Even treating a cut with chloraminated water would not result in virtually any chloramine finding its way into your bloodstream.

In the event that you are exposed to higher than safe levels of chloramine, the EPA reports health effects including a stinging in the eyes or nose, stomach discomfort and dry, itchy skin.  If you are experiencing any of these symptoms and are concerned that it may be due to exposure, call a doctor first.  Check-in with your water company, and consider a water test kit and chloramine filter next.

TK-2 Culligan Water Test Kit7. Have you tested your water?
Chloramine is fairly easy to detect in water.  You can use a $7 Culligan water test kit, found on our site and pictured, to effectively determine whether or not there are higher than safe levels of this disinfectant in your drinking water.  If needed, we can even ship this out for you overnight.

8. Is anyone living in your home a kidney dialysis patient?
As stated by Illinois American Water:

In the dialysis process, water comes in contact with the blood across a permeable membrane. Chloramines in that water would be toxic, just as chlorine is toxic, and must be removed from water used in kidney dialysis machines.

In other words, yes, those that live with kidney dialysis patients need to take special precaution when it comes to chloramine.  However, these patients need to take the same precaution when it comes to chlorine, making a switch in the disinfectant used by a municipality more of a lateral shift as far as their habits are concerned.

All kidney dialysis patients should consult with their physician on the most appropriate water treatment or filter options, whether due to chloramine or any other water contamination or disinfection issue.Filter Chloramines Out of Aquarium Water

9. Do you have an aquarium?
Similar to dialysis patients, any disinfectant used in water will come into contact with a fish’s bloodstream, making filtration critical for those with more expensive aquarium set-ups.

If you have or are thinking about investing in an aquarium, we recommend researching the information that your local water company makes available to see what disinfectants are used, or asking your local aquarium shop if you should invest in a whole house or chloramine filter.

10. Are you a home brewer?
In researching the topic of chloramine, and specifically whether or not you need to employ a chloramine filter, you’ll find a lot of content from the aquarium and home brewing communities.

Use Best Judgment Before Investing In Chloramine Filter For Home BrewingWith the home brewing community, the issue comes down to whether or not chloramine causes taste issues, particularly as this disinfectant is difficult to reduce using standard methods such as trusting a carbon filter or boiling.

More Beer puts it most effectively in stating:
If your water district is changing over to chloramination, or if you’re moving to a chloraminated-water area, you may be wondering how you can get chloramines out of your brew water. First, however, you should ascertain whether chloramines really are a problem. Does your beer have off-flavors? If you can’t taste anything and are not a trained taster, have it tasted by someone who is. If you aren’t getting the medicinal or plastic-like taste of chlorophenols in your beer, don’t worry about removing chloramines.

If you’ve come this far and determined that a chloramine filter is needed in your home, your options would include:CRFC-BB Pentek Chloramine Reduction Water Filter

Whether or not you need a chloramine filter will primarily come down to how sensitive you are to the smell and taste of disinfectant, rather than any health related issues.  That said, this is small comfort if you are among those most sensitive to this type of water issue.  It’s also small comfort to those of you suffering through legitimate issues with chloramine contamination.

After reading this, if you feel as though a chloramine filter is right for your home, please review the products above for the right fit.  I also invite you to call our customer service team with any questions at 1-800-277-3458.

Please like us on Facebook, follow us on Twitter or +1 us on Google+ to be the first to see exclusive new filter sales and discounts.

Are you a veteran, currently serving in the Armed Forces, or buying a gift for a veteran or soldier?  Use the discount code ‘VETERAN’ at checkout to take 5% off your entire order!

Do I Need A UV Disinfection System?


E Coli Outbreak Map from CDCIf you are considering a UV disinfection system for your home or business, you undoubtedly have a whole list of questions.  As such a system oftentimes requires a larger upfront investment, you may have questions related to UV disinfection system cost.

You may also have questions related to how UV disinfection system technology works, its level of efficiency and whether a UV system is truly more effective than disinfectant chemicals such as chlorine.

While the questions above are valid ones that we’ll try to answer below, the true determination regarding whether you need such a system can better be expressed in a checklist format, rather than an FAQ.  For your reference, we’ve created just such a checklist Continue reading

Meet The Man Mark Ruffalo Hand-Picked To Fight For Clean Water: Q&A With Water Defense Chief Scientist Scott Smith


Scott Smith & Mark Ruffalo of Water Defense
Actor & Water Defense founder Mark Ruffalo investigates water contamination under the Union Street Bridge in Brooklyn, NY with Chief Scientist Scott Smith

Clean water is a universal need for every man, woman and child on this planet.

That’s one reason we are thankful for organizations like Water Defense.  Founded by Oscar nominated actor Mark Ruffalo, perhaps most famous as Bruce Banner / The Incredible Hulk from Marvel’s The Avengers, Water Defense’s mission as stated is to support ‘a world where water is safe to drink, a world where the oceans don’t rise and the economy is powered by clean, sustainable sources of energy like wind, water and solar.’

Such a bold mission requires technology and leadership to match, and for this, Ruffalo hand-picked Chief Scientist, Scott Smith – pictured with Ruffalo above.

In our interview with Smith below, he shares more about what attracted him to his position as Chief Scientist of Water Defense, his background as the founder of the ground-breaking OPFLEX water purification technology, (the only technology endorsed, ordered, reordered and recycled by BP in the Gulf oil spill) and how the new developments he and Ruffalo are supporting have the potential to change the future of our world’s water radically for the better:

[At the bottom of this post, see a video shared by Smith sharing more about the history and background of OPFLEX, the water purification technology he founded and developed.]

You are the Chief Scientist for Water Defense, an organization founded by actor Mark Ruffalo. 

In founding Water Defense, Mark joined Matt Damon – co-founder of Water.org – in leveraging his influence to become a champion for clean water.  Why do you feel that clean water is an issue that celebrities like Mark and Matt have become so passionate about?

I believe Mark and Matt understand there is one world and one waterway, and we are all connected. If we don’t bring people together to solve water contamination issues, nothing else really matters. Water is one of the biggest resources we take for granted. Without water, life ends. We drink it, bathe in it and cook with it.

Scott Smith Pictured With OPFLEX Water Purification Technology
Scott Smith Pictured With OPFLEX Water Purification Technology

For something so crucial to our everyday lives, we are doing a poor job in protecting the nation’s waterways. Unfortunately, people learn this lesson the hard way, and we want to educate people to prevent any more needless loss of life.

Those who live along the Gulf Coast, in Mayflower, Ark. and most recently in Charleston, W.Va. have experienced this firsthand. Worse is the lack of information and transparency that’s afforded to the public when accidents happen. We still don’t know the long-term effects of fracking and exactly what chemicals and gases are being released from deep below the cap rock of the Earth.

[Note: for those unfamiliar with fracking, see more in this resource provided by the Ohio Environmental Council.]

Clearly, with the Bakken oil train explosions of Lac-Megantic, Quebec; Aliceville, Ala.; and Casselton, N.D., we have started one of the more risky experiments in North America that will continue to cause tragic loss of human life if we do not develop new protocols and standards for not just understanding what explosive chemicals are being transported, but testing baseline water, which includes cumulative water testing. This is why the issue is so important to all of us, and it’s our mission to inspire people to stand up and take action to demand their right to clean water access.

Mark Ruffalo & Scott Smith of Water Defense Present at Cape Cod University
Mark Ruffalo & Scott Smith of Water Defense Present at Cape Cod University

Last month, you and Mark spoke out on behalf of clean water during a talk at Cape Cod Community College.  For our readers that were unable to attend, could you please share more about the issues you covered?

We unveiled a new project we’re working on with Cape Cod Community College to create new protocols for baseline cumulative water testing that will allow the community to better monitor contaminants that accumulate over time and reduce pollution of Cape Cod’s waters.

Cumulative water testing mimics how life interacts with water. For example, a fish does not swim in the water for a split second; a child does not swim in the water for a split second; and people don’t bathe in the water for a split second. This initiative is a perfect example of what we want to replicate in communities throughout the country.

All waterways are connected; if there is a spill of Bakken oil in North Dakota that goes into the Missouri river, within seven to 10 days, the contaminated water will be in the Gulf Stream, which then flows up the East Coast to the waters of Cape Cod.

Your recent background is as the founder and inventor of OPFLEX Technology, an open cell foam sponge that helps to purify water.  What inspired you to dedicate your life to clean water and develop this product, and go on to work with Mark as a part of Water Defense?

Scott Smith Unraveling His Clean Water Solution
Scott Smith Unraveling His Clean Water Solution

In 2006, a company I started was wiped out by oil-contaminated 500-year floodwaters in St. Johnsville, N.Y. After experiencing its destructive power, I dedicated my life to developing a simple solution that filters oil from water. This was the inspiration for what became OPFLEX Technology, which removes the oil at the source of contamination and prevent our waterways from being destroyed.

Also, while working side by side with fisherman and people in the communities of the Gulf of Mexico during the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, I realized the world was relying on instantaneous water testing – taking water samples for a split second from the surface of the water. I found instantaneous water testing was giving false negatives of dangerous oil-related chemicals and started to deploy OPFLEX as an environmental indicator throughout the entire water column – from surface to bottom, where life exists – and found accumulation of previously undetected oil and related chemicals.

Upon this discovery, my life changed forever. I realized I had a duty and obligation to inform people about cumulative water testing and what could be done to protect human health and save our waterways.

Mark heard of my work on the ground in the Gulf and then in Mayflower, Ark. after the March 2013 ExxonMobil Pegasus pipeline oil spill and specifically asked me to join his organization in the fight for clean water. Needless to say, the decision was easy.

OPFLEX [pictured below] has exciting potential to help solve our world’s shortage of clean drinking water.  Could you please describe briefly the technology behind OPFLEX and how it works to purify water?

OPFLEX Water Purification Technology
A Closer Look At OPFLEX Water Purification Technology

OPFLEX is a reuseable foam technology that sits in all levels of the water column and absorbs contaminants through a capillary network of open cells while repelling water.

Essentially, the OPFLEX technology is based on biomimicry of human lungs, where the open cells are like the alveoli, effectively acting as a filter and utilizing unprecedented surface area to rapidly filter water. It can be used both for water testing and in cleanup efforts, and OPFLEX technology was the only technology out of 43,000 ideas endorsed, ordered, reordered and recycled by BP in the Gulf oil spill.

In fact, this is referenced in a USA Today business section cover story from November 2010. OPFLEX Technology can be used by both companies and consumers alike to detect contamination and prevent our waterways from being contaminated.

Cost is oftentimes cited as a major hurdle in when we discuss how to solve global water issues, whether the proposed solution is distribution or purification.  How do you envision OPFLEX helping to ease some of the cost issues involved with water purification?

What’s great about investing in OPFLEX technology is that it’s reusable, cutting down on long-term costs.

You can also use it for both water testing and cleanup, reducing the tools you need to one simple solution. Because of the surface area of OPFLEX, the cost is around $.10 per square foot, even without reuse (so if you use OPFLEX 10 times, the cost goes to $.01 per square foot).

OPFLEX Water Purification Technology In Use In China
OPFLEX Water Purification Technology In Use Helping To Purify The Water In China

Conversely, products that do not effectively filter the water and wind up in landfills cost $2.00 per square foot and cannot be reused.

Nearly 300,000 West Virginia residents recently suffered through an unprecedented chemical spill, leaving their tap water unusable.  Because so little is known about MCHM, the chemical spilled into the water, we were unable to offer our customers any water filters certified to reduce this contaminant.  How would a technology like OPFLEX help to purify water supplies contaminated by – for lack of a better word – the ‘unknown’?

We utilized the same lab as the state of West Virginia and detected MCHM at concerning levels within the open cells of OPFLEX deployed in a bathtub in Charleston.

The lab verified the efficacy of the OPFLEX technology with control samples, too. It appears the company testing the waters in Charleston did not have technology that could filter the MCHM.

We attempted to donate OPFLEX filter bags, but the governor and water company showed no interest, which is unfortunate for the community. However, we don’t ever give up and will keep trying.

Mark Ruffalo & Scott Smith of Water Defense At Barnstable High School
Ruffalo & Smith Field Questions At Barnstable High School

In addition to West Virginia, there have been several more prominent water contamination issues over the past year, including water that was contaminated by Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines to the recent finding of E. Coli in several New York City drinking water tankers.  How would a technology like OPFLEX help to purify water in these two types of situations?

We continue to develop prototype filtration systems that utilize OPFLEX in different configurations, such as eelgrass and cubes, which have shown preliminary results in their ability to substantially reduce biological oxygen demanders, chemical oxygen demanders, suspended solids and dissolved solids.

We are now researching E. coli. Because OPFLEX repels water, the technology can be used in these situations to assist in cleanup efforts by absorbing and removing oil and related non-polar contaminants like a magnet, along with metals due to its molecular structure.

Our thanks go out to Scott Smith, Mark Ruffalo and all at Water Defense and OPFLEX for their fight on behalf of clean water.  We encourage you to learn more about this fight by watching the video provided by Scott below, sharing more about his history and the founding of OPFLEX.

Are You Prepared For A Drinking Water Emergency?


No Clean Drinking Water In West VirginiaWe’ve achieved the enviable distinction in this country of having safe drinking water whenever we turn on the tap.  While water filters will help to refine and improve taste, there are very few instances where we find our water to be undrinkable.

Until recently, of course.

Earlier this year, coverage of the MCHM chemical spill in West Virginia and E. Coli contamination of water tankers in New York has brought into shocking light just how unprepared most of us our for a drinking water emergency.  Thousands in these states are now learning just how upside down and difficult life can truly become when clean drinking water is no longer a given.

The question, then, is there anything that we can do to prepare ourselves for future drinking water emergencies?  Fortunately, yes.  Brought about in seemingly equal parts by camping fads, survival prepping movements and the need to provide clean drinking water to those in more impoverished parts of the world, there is seemingly no shortage on water filters and filtration products that can be trusted when a situation becomes a full-blown emergency.

Drinking Water Emergency Early Stages: Testing
As seen in both West Virginia and New York, the earliest stages of a drinking water emergency will be filled with instantly outdated news coverage, anger and confusion.  Perhaps the biggest unknown, seen particularly in West Virginia, will be just how far the emergency has spread.

In these instances, water test kits will be some of your strongest allies.

WaterWorks Handheld UV LightOn our site, we are happy to offer water test kits designed to test for bacteria, lead and more.  We are even happy to offer the Handheld Ultraviolet Light, shown to the left, that can instantly help detect the presence of coliform or E. Coli.

While these tests are by no means fool-proof, and should never take the place of having your water professionally tested if you feel as though there may be a significant risk to your health, these kits can help you to quickly identify some of the more major contamination issues.

As a note, if you pull your water from a private well, it is recommended that you test your drinking water once or twice per year, typically in spring and fall when organic contaminants become more common.

Drinking Water Emergency Middle Stages: A Run on Bottled Water
As confusion turns to panic, stores will see run on bottled water.  As the MCHM contamination incident in West Virginia grew worse, emergency shipments of bottled water needed to be trucked in and distributed by the National Guard.

W9330229 Doulton Undersink Filter HousingIn the case of the West Virginia situation, we do need to take time to indicate that any water filters or filtration product that we sell – even those designed for emergencies – are not certified to reduce MCHM, as so little is known about this chemical.  But there are several types of water filters and filtration systems that are certified to reduce more well known, but just as potentially dangerous, water contaminants.

Manufacturer Doulton offers ceramic water filters that are certified to reduce up to 99% of harmful bacteria, including the E. Coli bacteria that is currently plaguing New Yorkers, that fit compactly into an undersink filtration system housing like the one shown to the left.  Apart from the housing and filter, you’ll just need some O-rings and lubricant to get yourself set-up.

Another option is a filtration system from Katadyn, including a microfilter system, that has quickly become a go-to brand for campers and survival preppers.  Katadyn also offers the only water purification bottle registered by the EPA for complete anti-microbial protection.

Sport Berkey Portable Water Purifier BottleFinally, there are purification systems offered by Berkey, including travel purification systems that are easy to pack and portable water purification bottles that are easy to grab and go, that are among the most advanced filtration systems on the market today.  Both types of systems have been tested to filter virtually contaminants from even the most stagnant sources of water.

Drinking Water Emergency Late Stages: Go Military
Fortunately, a long-term drinking water emergency where water is undrinkable for months is a fairly unlikely event.  Even the unprecedented chemical spill in West Virginia had cleared within a matter of weeks giving way to water once again safe to drink (though the definition of ‘safe’ is still under debate.)

In the event that we do find ourselves in a long-term drinking water emergency, the types of systems recommended above will remain some of your best friends and strongest allies.  But another ally you could call upon, provided you acquired them in advance, are water purification tablets, like the military grade tablets from Aquamira below.

Aquamira Water Purification TabletsWater purification tablets have a long shelf life, are light and small enough to fit into nearly any pack, and in the case of  Aquamira, are EPA certified to reduce bacteria, cysts and viruses.  They can even help your water to taste better, which will be a welcome creature comfort should you find yourself in an emergency situation.

Have you prepared yourself, your home or your family for a drinking water emergency?  If so, we’d love to hear more about what steps you’ve taken via a comment below.

If you are interested in buying emergency water filtration products, or building a water filtration system in your home, we would encourage you to call our customer service department at 1-800-277-3458.

We invite you to like us on Facebook, follow us on Twitter or +1 us on Google+ to be the first to learn about exclusive deals and new products.

Are you a veteran, currently serving in the Armed Forces, or are you buying a gift for a veteran or soldier?  Use the discount code ‘VETERAN’ at checkout to take 5% off your entire order!